Recently “Bisotoon” in Kermanshah has been registerd as the eighth masterpiece in UNESCO list of archeological mounments. So we are going to introduce kermanshah province and its features in the following paragraphs:
The province of Kermanshah or Kermanshah has an area of 24,641 km2 and lies in the west of Iran. It shares broders with Iraq on its west, and neighbors the provinces of Hamedan on the east, Kurdistan on the north and Lorestan and Ilam on the south.
The capital of the province is the city of Kermanshah and its other major cities are: Eslamabade Gharb, Javanrood, qasre Shirin, Gilane Gharb, Kangavar, Paveh, Sahneh, Sarepolzahab, Songhor and Harsin.
At the time of the latest census, in 1996, the population of this province of this province was 1,778,596, a number of whom were nomad tribes who migrated seasonally following their sheeps and goats in search of grazing land. Indeed, livestock breeding, mainly sheep and goat, is an important economic activity for the people of this province, alongside its agriculturd. This province products considerable quantities of wheat, barley, rice, beetroots, citrus fruits and dates, for the quality of which, the province is well known.
Kermanshah province has remarkably vast mineral depostits, iron and lead ores, alumite and sulphur in particular. It also has many food processing plants and oil refineries which provide jobs for a sizeable number of the inhabitants.
Kemanshah province is ont eh whole a mountainous region as the Zagross range of mountains runs along its entire length. The climate in this province is warm in the western parts and cold elsewhere. The average temperature is 15.6 C in spring, 25.3 in summer, 11.3 C in autumn and 3.3 C in winter. During the last 30 years the maximum absolute temperature recorded was 44 C and the minimum absolute, -27 C. the avrage annual temperature was 14 C. the avaerage relative humidity at 06:30 hours was 65%, and at 12:30 hours, 37%. The average annual rainfall was 488.4 mm with a maximum daily rainfall of 108 mm. The average number of frosty days was 92.5 and the average number fo hours of sunshine ober the entire year, 2,842.5. the speed of the heaviest wind was 30 meters per second blowing in the direction of 110 .
Major Natural Features
Kermanshah is one of the richest Iranian provinces in terms of archeological treasures and monuments, such as the stone carvings of Bisotoon. It also offers the visitor a wealth of natural beauty and visual marvels.
Alvand river, 160 km long, passes through the cities of Qasre shirin and Eslamabad. It then crosses the Iraqi border and ultimately pours into the Tigris. The Zimkan (160 km), Jagiran, Ghayerneh, Diyaleh and Absefid are among its other rivers. Almost everywhere along these rivers, the banks provide ideal conditions for recreation.
Tang- hammam hot water spring, on the road from QasreShirin to Sarepolzahab, and the Imam Hassan mineral water spring close to the city of Kermanshah, are the two major mineral water spring of this province.
Because this mountaous rgion has large limestone formations, there are many astonishing caves in this province. Praw, to the north of Kermanshah city, is the world’s largest limestone cave in which 26 deep natural wells may be seen. The cave has many large “halls” with delightful stalagmites asn stalactites, glittering when lit. there are beautiful stalagmites and stalagtites at the mounth of the cave. In the deepest parts of the cave is to be found.
Ghouri-Ghaleh, near the city of Paveh, is Asia’s largest water containing cave. Many Iranian and foreign cave explorers have attempted to discover the cave entirely, but all in vain. So far 3,140 m of the cave and 12 km of tunnels have been explored and identified. It is indeed incomparable both in size and beauty, and for the fascinating archeological traces of early human settlement.
In bisotoon cave, north of which is being explored by scientists from philadelphia University, traces have been found of the epoque when human beings collected and stored food, a remarkable era in the history of the development of civilization.
Other major caves of kermanshah are Asangaran, Roteil and Kavat, all of which have both visual and archoelogical attractions in abundance.
The highest peaks in this province are those of Sheik Ali khan (3,357 m), Dalakhani (3,350 m), Lujar (2,831 m) near Songhor, and Hojeir (2,583 m) close to Kermanshah city. Most mountains in this province offer ideal ski slopes in winter.
Kermanshah has diverse wildlife, in its delightuful forests and on muntain slopes, most of which are declared as preserved regions.
Bisotoon refuge with an area of 3,125 ha and the Bisotoon preserved area, 585 ha, are two natural sites where many wild animals can be observed: the leopard, bear, boar, wolf, ram, wild goat, fox … and such birds as the partridge, quail and ringdove.
The city of Kermanshah lies at an altitude of 1,319 m, 525 km from Tehran. It has been inhabited by different people during the last 4,000 years. In the Sassanid era it was at its peak of glory and prosperity as can be seen from the remains of the period. But, upon the invasion of the moslem army, Kermanshah, like most other Iranian cities, fell and was captured by the Moslem forces.
In the 13th century, kermanshah was badly rensacked and devastated at the hands of mongols. Yet again, in the 15th century it was invaded by the ottoman army.
The city began to grow and once again prosper from the beginning of the 18th century as the Qajar dynasty came to power. In the eight-year war that the Iraqis waged against Iran in 1980, many cities and towns were severely damaged, including Kermanshah which sustained air-attacks and damages caused by missiles.
Carpet, kilim, jajim and giveh weaving, engraving, glass blowing, leather marking and wood works are among major industries of this province.
Mo’aven-ol-molk tekieh museum: This monument is of great historic and religious value, and is presently a museum consisting of two parts: archeology and anthropology.
Address: Hadade Adel Abe., Kermanshah